Russia and the Great War
1917 - The Beginning of the End
This section will focus on a the events of the Great War, as well as the costs in men and equipment. It was the most devastating conflict the world ever engaged in to that point. The war would sap the strength of the massive Russian military machine, and plunge the nation into revolution.
With few exceptions noted in parenthesis, all dates given below are according to the Gregorian Calendar that was used by most of the world during this period. Additionally, the dates below are color coded depending on where the selected event took place. All dates in Black took place in Europe, while naval actions will be highlighted in Dark Blue, actions that took place in the Caucasus and Asia will be highlighted in Brown.
History and Battles
of the Great War
STAVKA creates Romanian front, and are effectively in
control of the Romanian army.
In conference with allies Russia receives promises of aid in the form of aircraft, munitions, and heavy artillery.
Fighting continues in the Carpathians along the Moldovan
frontier. Russians are pushed back slightly in several points.
Central Powers armies contact Russian lines near Focsani and Fundeni. They also make further progress at the Macin bridgehead.
Russians repulse attack near
Heavy fighting occurs in the mountains of Moldova.
Central powers forces advance near Focsani, but Russian army launches a successful counterattack near the town.
Central powers advance near Macin continues.
Island in the river Dvina near
Glandau falls to the Germans.
Russian army attacks near Mt. Botosul in the Bukovina.
Central Powers forces advance
north-west of Focsani.
German army attempts to cross the Dvina near Glandau but fail.
Central Powers forces take Gurgueti, Romanul, and penetrate the Braila
Russians evacuate Braila, and are defeated at Vacareni.
Russian battleship 'Peresvyet' is sunk by a mine off Port Said.
Russians launch an offensive
between Lake Babit and the Tirul march west of Riga.
Central powers troops advance along the Romanian front, primarily between the Rimnic and Buzeu rivers.
The Dobruja region is completely cleared of all Russian and Romanian forces.
Heavy fighting takes place
between Focsani and the Carpathians, Russians loose ground near Susita
valley and near Odobesti.
Russians launch counter-offensive between Focsani and Fundeni. They also recover ground near Obilesti
Russian army continues to gain
ground south of Lake Babit.
Russo-Romanian front is broken north-west of Focsani.
Russian forces recover island in
the river Dvina near Glandau.
Focsani is captured after Central Powers advance in the Casin and Susitsa valleys. 5,500 prisoners are taken. They also make progress near Fundeni.
Russian troops continue their
advance between the Tirul marsh and river Aa.
Central Powers troops cross the river Putna both north and south-east of Focsani.
Russians make further progress
south of Lake Babit.
In the Oitoz valley of Moldavia the Russians loose two heights, but push enemy forces back across the river Putna north of Focsani.
German army counter-attacks south
of Lake Babit near Kalutsem, but it is repulsed.
Romanians launch successful attack in the Casin valley.
Russian army manages to halt enemy progress in the Susitsa valley and between Braila and Galatz.
Germans launch another attack
near Kalutsem, but it is again repulsed.
Mihalea falls to the Central Powers.
|13 January||Germans again repulsed near Kalutsem. An attack in the south east of Focsani is repulsed by the Russians.|
Romanians repulse enemy advances
in the Casin valley.
Central powers troops also pushed back north-east of Focsani, but capture Vadeni.
|15 January||Russians launch an unsuccessful attack near Fundeni.|
|16 January||Romanian army recaptures the heights between Casin and Oitoz valley. Central Powers forces also driven from Vadeni.|
|17 January||German advance in Romania under Gen. von Mackensen is halted.|
|18-19 January||Romanian forces launch a series of unsuccessful attacks against positions between the Casin and Susitsa valleys.|
|19 January||Nanesti and the bridgehead at Fundeni are captured by Germans.|
|20 January||German forces take Fundeni.|
|22 January||Bulgarian troops cross the southern Danube near Tulcea.|
German army launches a
counter-offensive between Lake Babit and Tirul march. Russian
army looses much of the ground they had gained earlier in the month.
Bulgarians are driven back across the southern Danube.
|24 January||Germans continue their advance near Lake Babit amid hard fighting. Russian troops are forced back.|
|25 January||Russian forces launch counter-attacks near Lake Babit, but all fail after fierce fighting.|
|27 January||In Bukovina the Russian army takes many positions between Kimpolung and Jacobeny. 1,218 prisoners are taken in these actions.|
Germans make strong push between
river Aa and Tirul marsh. They take 900 prisoners during the
Russian forces east of Jakobeny attack and capture major hill fortifications and take over 1,000 prisoners.
|31 January||Germans east of Jakobeny launch three separate night attacks in attempt to retake positions they lost the previous night, but are repulsed with heavy losses.|
|1 February||German troops in winter camouflage break through Russian lines 15 miles south of Halicz, but are pushed back by Russian counterattack.|
Germans launch several attacks
east of Kalutsem, but all are repulsed.
Russian Black Sea fleet sinks 18 small Turkish vessels off the coast of Anatolia.
|4 February||German forces continue to launch attacks east of Kalutsem, but all fail. Any gains they make are only momentary.|
|5 February||Russian army repulses attacks 10 miles south of Kieselin.|
|6 February||German forces launch attacks across the frozen Sereth river, but attacks fail.|
|11 February||Russians drive back small enemy force that crossed the frozen Dniester river.|
|12 February||Germans attack near Jakobeny and take 1,200 prisoners.|
|13 February||Russians launch counter-attacks near Jakobeny, but they are repulsed by the Germans.|
|14 February||Germans launch a raid in north Galicia that captures 6 Russian officers and 275 men.|
|17 February||Germans in winter camouflage launch a raid on the Lavkassa river south-west of Dvinsk and capture 50 prisoners.|
|18 February||Russians launch a surprise attack in the Trotus valley and capture enemy strongpoints and high ground.|
|21 February||Germans launch an attack near Jakobeny, but it is repulsed by Russian troops.|
|23 February||Russians lose the Magyaros heights north-west of Ocna in Moldova. 1,000 Russians are taken prisoner.|
|27 February||Germans manage to take several Russian positions on high ground and take 1,300 prisoners.|
|28 February||In the Bukovina the Romanian army launches attack that is partially successful.|
Germans claim successes around Riga and on Narajowka river.
Russian troops occupy town of Hamadan.
Russian army launches poison
gas attack north of Lake Naroch.
German army attacks south-west of Brzezany in Galicia and near Voruchin.
Russians launch poison
gas attack near Krevo.
Romanian forces bombard Calieni.
|6 March||Night attack on German positions south of Brzezany fails.|
|7 March||Retreating column of Turkish troops heading towards Baghdad is forced out of Assadabad Pass by pursuing Russian forces.|
Romanians loose heights northwest of Ocna in Moldova.
Magyaros ridge is captured by German troops.
German attacks near Mitau are repulsed by Russian army.
Russian troops leaving Hamadan engage and rout a Turkish force that is forced to withdraw to Hajiabad.
Retreating Turkish troops are attacked by
Russians near Sivas in Asia Minor.
Russian scouts advance southwest of Sakis.
Russians and Romanian forces launch counter-attack to regain Magyaros
British troops push Turkish forces to within three miles of Baghdad.
|11 March||Russian army launches poison gas attack east of Mitau.|
|12 March||Germans launch successful raids near Zloczow-Tarnopol railway, near Bezezany, and on the Narajowka river.|
Bulgarian forces bombard Galantz from the Danube river.
Kermanshah falls to Russian forces after two
Tsar Nicholas II abdicates.
Attempts to pass throne to brother Mikhail who refuses.
V. I. Lenin returns to Petrograd from exile and calls for 'Peace,
Russian troops force Turks from the summit of Naleskian in Persia. They also occupy Alliabad and engage Turks near Kerind.
|17 March||After heavy fighting Russians occupy Kerind and pursue fleeing Turks along the Tehran road.|
|18 March||Russians in Armenia enter Van.|
Germans launch skirmishes near Lida, in Galicia, and along the Romanian
Russian forces continue to pursue Turks from Sakiz towards Kermanshah.
|22 March||Russian army manages to retake lost trenches near Lida.|
Germans begin massing troops along the Riga-Dvinsk front. This
action seriously threatens Petrograd.
Russian troops lose trenches west of Moinesci near river Trotus.
|24 March||Russian army declare their loyalty to the new Provisional Government.|
General Alexeyev is appointed commander-in-chief of the Russian army.
Germans launch poison gas attack in the Dvinsk region, but it is repulsed.
Provisional government accepts all responsibilities of the Tsarist regime. It abolishes ALL decorations except for the Order of St. George.
|26 March||Russians are attacked southwest of Baranovichi and retreat to the east bank of the river Shchara. 300 Russians are taken prisoner in the retreat.|
Germans issue a report that the spring thaw has prevented large scale
Russians launch attacks on Magyaros ridge, but they fail.
Russians make progress towards Khanikin some 85
miles northeast of Baghdad.
Turks retreat to Kasr-i-Shirin in Persia.
|2 April||British and Russian troops link up at Kizil-Robat.|
Germans report success along the river Stokhod.
Russian cavalry occupies Kasr-i-Shirin and Khanikin.
|5 April||Russian War Minister Guchkov issues a manifesto asking soldiers to do their duty and obey orders.|
|9 April||Kizil-Robot is occupied by Russian troops.|
|19 April||The commander of the Black Sea fleet, Admiral Kolchak, is appointed commander-in-chief of the Baltic Fleet.|
Russian War Minister issues decree banning the election of officers in
the army. He also give deserters until May 14 to present
themselves to military authorities.
Cossacks repulse Kurds on river Diala.
|30 April||Provisional Government affirms its intention to keep fighting.|
|1 May||Mush is occupied by Turkish forces.|
|5 May||Russian forces near Mush and Oghnut withdraw.|
|10 May||General Ruzski is releaved of command by the Provisional Government.|
General Kornilov and Minister Guchkov resign.
Russian detachments are forced to retire across the river Diala towards Kifri. This greatly enhances the Turkish chances of retreat.
Germans launch heavy bombardment against Russian trenches near Kukhary.
Kurds attack Russian rear positions near Khanikin.
|4 June||General Brusilov is appointed to be commander-in-chief of Russian armies. He replaces General Alexeyev.|
|16 June||In Petrograd the All-Russian Congress of Worker's and Peoples' Delegates opens.|
|24 June||Mutiny of Russian Black Sea fleet at Sevastopol.|
|25 June||German warship 'Breslau' destroys wireless station and lighthouse during a raid on island of Fidonisi.|
|26 June||Russian forces take Serdesht in Persia.|
|30 June||Heavy artillery actions in Galicia.|
'Kerenski Offensive' begins.
Russian 7th and 11th armies under Gen. Brusilov launch offensive along a 50 mile front on both sides of Brezezany. Three lines of trenches and 12,000 prisoners are taken. There is heavy fighting and heavy losses in the southern area of the offensive.
|2 July||Russian offensive gains ground near Zborow. They take 6,300 prisoners.|
Russian attack on Brzezany fails.
Artillery activity increases in the Stokhod area.
|5 July||Intense artillery and infantry combat occurs in the Brzezany region.|
Russian offensive in Galicia progresses in the region of
Heavy fighting continues near Brzezany.
|8 July||Austrian front is broken west of Stanislau by Russian forces under General Kornilov. His force takes 7,000 prisoners. German forces move in to stop Austrian rout and Russian cavalry attacks.|
Russian offensive makes progress southwest of Halicz.
Enemy forces are pushed back behind river Lomnica and Russians take
Russian army reports that increasing Turkish pressure along the Mesopotamian front is causing them to evacuate towns.
Halicz is captured by Russian army.
Russians pursue fleeing enemy across river Lomnica and take 2,000 prisoners.
|11 July||Kalusz is captured by Russian army.|
Russian army makes progress towards Dolina.
General Kornilov crosses the Lomnica river.
|13 July||Russians take 1,600 prisoners in actions near Kalusz.|
Resistance to Russian attacks increases in Galicia.
Germans make small gains south of Kalusz.
Russians begin withdrawal in Galicia.
Kalusz is evacuated.
|17 July||Germans launch counter-offensive, but Russian troops hold their positions.|
|18 July||In heavy fighting Russian army takes Nowica, but loses it that same day.|
|19 July||Germans penetrate Russian lines east of Zloczow because of Russian troop insubordination.|
|20 July||Germans increase size of breach in Russian line.|
German army makes progress south of the Dniester river
and reaches suburbs of Tarnopol.
Russian army retreats on the Sereth river.
Russian retreat in Galicia expands to affect other
German lines east of Vilna are penetrated by Russian troops to a distance of two miles. Russians take 1,000 prisoners, but further progress is limited due to troop insubordination.
Kerenski succeeds Prince Lvov as Prime Minister.
Russian army begins undisciplined retreat (rout) in
Galicia on a 150 mile long front.
Halicz falls, Stanislau is evacuated.
A Russian diversion at Dvinsk and Smorgon is followed by an orderly troop withdrawal.
On the Romanian front a joint Russo-Romanian operation succeeds taking 2,000 prisoners and 57 guns.
Stanislau and Tarnopol fall.
Russian government restores the death penalty (which they ad abolished) to troops at the front.
Many towns are evacuated as the Russian retreat in
Galicia continues. Russians abandon positions in the Carpathians.
Russo-Romanian force advances in southern Moldovia.
|26 July||Austro-German force crosses the Sereth river and takes Kolomea.|
The armies of the Central Powers reach the Russian
frontier as the Russian retreat continues.
Russian advance in Moldavia gains ground.
Russians begin to offer resistance in region of the
southern Dniester river, but the general retreat in Bukovina continues.
Romanian forces in Moldavia continues its advance and take all objectives and many prisoners.
|30 July||Zaleszczycki and Sniatyn fall.|
Austro-German armies extend their hold on Galician front
and make their way to the west bank of Zbrucz.
Russians retreat in the Czernovitz region.
Austro-German forces advance on Czernowitz and occupy
positions near Bessarabian frontier.
Russians continue general retreat.
|2 August||General Brusilov and Dmitriev resign. General Kornilov is appointed commander in chief of Russian army.|
Fall of Czernowitz.
On the Romanian front Kimpolung is evacuated.
|4 August||Russian army near Zbrucz river rallies and attacks, but general retreat continues elsewhere.|
|5 August||Vama is occupied by Austro-German forces.|
Weak Russian rally in Czernowitz region.
Gen. von Mackensen's army storms Russian positions north of Focsani.
|7 August||von Mackensen's army crosses the Susitza river and takes 3,000 prisoners.|
|8 August||Russo-Romanian forces in the Trotus valley begin withdrawal.|
|9 August||German offensive led by General Mackensen pushes forward and threatens Russian and Romanian communications.|
|10 August||Germans under Mackensen strikes at Romanian armies. Gains also reported in northern Moldavia.|
Mackensen's army crosses the river Sereth and takes
Romanian forces resist stubbornly before retiring at Ocna.
Russo-Romanian forces take the offensive in mountains of
Former Tsar Nicholas is moved to Tobolsk.
|13 August||Russo-Romanian force make progress in Ocna region.|
Romanians halted in Ocna region.
Romanian 2nd Army and Russian 4th Army retreat towards river Sereth.
Germans take Soveia and renew their offensive in Focsani area.
Russo-Romanian army continues its retreat as von
Mackensen's army continues its advance up the Sereth
Baltareta bridgehead is taken by Germans.
Romanians hold their ground in the face of new offensive in the Ocna region.
|18 August||Romanians retire towards Marasesti.|
Germans claim to have taken 22,000 Russian prisoners in
the recent fighting.
Austro-German forces take trenches in Focsani region.
Romanians retake trenches lost near Focsani, but lose
ground in Ocna region.
Russian troops on the Riga front retreat due to insubordination and poor discipline.
Germans launch attack on the Riga front as Russian
evacuate positions between Tirul marsh and river Aa.
In Bukovina the town of Sereth is attacked.
|22 August||Russians retreat to shorten their line at Raggazen.|
|25 August||Temporary lull in the fighting on the Riga and Romanian front.|
|26 August||Germans renew attacks east of Czernowitz and claim 1,000 prisoners.|
Germans attack Focsani region.
Russian division defects in the face of the enemy who advances all day and penetrates to the Vainitza area.
Romanian troops continue stubborn resistance in the Ocna valley.
German aircraft drop 90 bombs on Russian ships in Gulf of Riga and Gulf of Finland.
Germans attack Riga and enter the city.
Russians evacuate positions on Dvina river. Germans cross the Dvina at Uxkull.
Russian 12th Army falls back west of Riga.
Fighting continues on the Mitau road.
Riga is evacuated by Russian 12th army. All forts and bridges are
destroyed. Germans claim many prisoners and 150 guns.
German warships break into Gulf of Riga to shell Livonian villages.
|4 September||Russians 12th Army falls back 30 miles along Riga-Petrograd road.|
|6 September||The Kaiser reviews his troops in Riga.|
General Kornilov is dismissed and replaced by
Kornilov marches on Petrograd.
Russian government reinstates the death penalty for treason, desertion, and cowardice.
Russian 12th army takes up positions 30 miles
northeast of Riga, Germans pursue them.
Kerenski becomes dictator and Provisional Government resigns.
|11 September||Kerenski declares Gen. Kornilov to be a traitor.|
|12 September||Russian ships of the Baltic Fleet bombard German artillery batteries on the Courland shores. Russians still retain control of the Gulf of Riga.|
General Alexeyev negotiates with Gen. Kornilov.
General Kaledin and his Don Cossacks revolt.
Germans approach trenches near Focsani, but are
repulsed by Romanians.
General Kornilov submits.
|15 September||Provisional Council declares Russia a Republic under Kerenski.|
|16 September||General Kaledin proclaims his loyalty to the new government.|
|19 September||Germans attack Lemburg and are repulsed.|
|20 September||Romanians repulse three attacks in the Susitza valley of Moldavia.|
Russians retire from Jakobstadt after defending
the town for 18 months.
General Alexeyev resigns.
|23 September||Russian forces successfully attack Turkish troops near Ortobo.|
Russian Democratic Congress opens in Moscow.
Arrest of Lenin is ordered.
Russian army fights Kurdish fighters near Oromaru.
|30 September||In Kiev the Non-Slav Counsel demands autonomy for all Russian nationalities.|
|1 October||German pilots bomb Oesel Island.|
|2 October||Russian Democratic Counsel decides against forming a coalition government.|
Heavy artillery duel near Jakobstadt.
Artillery barrage stops heavy attack in the Bukovina 7 miles north of Romanian frontier.
Bulgarians attack Romanians north of Buzeu river.
Russians take Nereman village north of Mosul.
|6 October||Russian troops take 750 prisoners in heavy fighting 25 miles south of Czernovitz.|
German attack against Russian 12th army is
Kerenski forms Coalition Government.
Russian navy encounters German scout ships
between Oesel island and Courland.
Railway strike begins in Russia.
Germans increase air activity over Oesel island.
German naval vessels begin reconnaissance around Oesel island.
|10 October||Germans bomb Russian transports at the southern end of Oesel island.|
|11 October||Germans gain ground southeast of Segewold and attempt to fraternize with Russians on Riga front.|
'Operation Albion' begins.
Germans launch amphibious landing on Oesel island. Russian coastal batteries are destroyed by large German naval force. Russian Baltic Fleet engages Germans and hinders their progress between Dago and Oesel islands.
Germans land at Tagga bay north of Oesel island and on Dago island. Part of Oesel island is occupied. German attempt to capture a pier on Moon island is repelled.
Germans continue landings on Oesel island. Detachments
land on Dago but are repelled.
Arensburg is occupied.
German minesweepers operate between Courland and Oesel island.
Tserel and Arensberg take heavy damage.
Russians guarding the Irbek strait are cut off on Sworbe peninsula.
German warships land more troops on islands of Runo and Abro.
Russian torpedo boats repel German attempt to enter Moon Sound.
|15 October||Russians on Oesel island are cut off from retreat. Germans take 3,500 prisoners and advance along the Sworbe peninsula.|
Germans take Oesel island.
10,000 Russians and 50 guns are captured by Germans.
German attempt to set a bridge across the Dvina fails.
Baltic Fleet assists in the defense of Moon Sound. Russian battleship 'Slava' is sunk.
Germans attempt to land on Dago island is
Russian government prepares to move from Petrograd to Moscow.
Major naval battle between Baltic fleet and Germans.
|18 October||Moon island is evacuated by Russian army.|
|19 October||Germans land on Dago island.|
Dago and Schilden islands are captured by
Germans also retire to Skuli-Lemberg line 30 miles east of Riga.
Russians repel German attempt to land north of
Verder peninsula, but Germans do succeed in landing at Verder.
Germans claim 20,000 prisoners and 100 guns captured in fighting since 12 October.
Baltic Fleet escapes north out of Moon Sound.
Russian Soviet issues its Peace Terms.
|21-22 October||During the night Germans retire on a wide front between Riga bay and the River Dvina.|
|22 October||Petrograd Soviet holds contentions meeting. Kerenski is accused of treason by Trotski who demands peace.|
Germans attempt another landing south of Verder
but it is repulsed.
Germans near Riga retire 20 miles in two days destroying bridges as they go.
Russians begin to evacuate Kronstadt.
Russian troops advance to river Dvina 30 miles southeast of Riga.
Germans attempt to consolodate their positions on
the Verder peninsula, but are frustrated by Russian attacks.
German ships from Moon Sound are bombard Kuno island near Pernau.
|26 October||German ships bombard Khainash.|
Germans retire from Verder Peninsula.
German troops attempt to fraternize with Russians in north and center lines.
|29 October||Russian army repels German attack near Riga.|
|31 October||German attempts to fraternize with Russians are met with artillery fire.|
|1 November||Lenin and his Maximalists threaten armed action in Petrograd.|
|3 November||German and Russian soldiers fraternize on northern front.|
|4 November||General Tumanov succeeds Verkhovski at Russian minister of war.|
Limited fighting on Russian front.
Maximalists increase their power in Petrograd.
|7 November||Bolshevik revolution spreads in Petrograd.|
|8 November||Bolsheviks depose Kerenski and announce 'an immediate democratic peace' as their first goal.|
Lenin and Bolsheviks gain control in Petrograd and appeal for army to
Cossack Confederation forms.
|10 November||Troops loyal to Kerenski and Provisional Government begin march to Petrograd.|
Disorder in Petrograd spreading.
Kerenski's forces reach Tsarkoe Selo.
|12 November||Bolshevik forces under Lenin and Trotsky defeat Kerenski's forces in Tsarkoe Selo.|
|13 November||Fighting between Bolsheviks and forces loyal to Kerenski occurs in Moscow and Petrograd.|
|14 November||Kerenski's forces defeated in Petrograd.|
Kerenski flees Petrograd.
Bitter fighting in Moscow leaves over 4,000 dead.
Bolsheviks gain complete control over Petrograd.
Declaration of the Soldier's Rights is issued by Bolsheviks. It includes the abolition of ranks and supports the election of officers.
Georgian National Counsel meets.
Bolsheviks make offer for armistice for purposes of discussing peace terms.
Bolsheviks dismiss General Dukonin for refusing to negotiate an
armistice with Germany. Krilenko is appointed commander-in-chief
of the army.
Ukrainian Republic is formed and declared a member of the Russian Federal Republic.
|22 November||Lenin authorizes troops at the front to negotiate with Germans.|
|23 November||Bolshevik government issues decree for disbanding of Russian army.|
|24 November||Trotsky begins publishing Russian secret treaties with other nations.|
|25 November||Russian troops near Baranovichi fraternize with the enemy.|
Estonia declares itself independent.
Russian ship is mined in the Baltic.
Hostilities cease on Russian front in many places.
Russian artillery in Trotus valley breaks up enemy attacks there.
Lenin demands the surrender of Gen. Dukhonin.
Russian General Staff surrenders at Mohilev.
|2 December||Russian and German peace delegations are welcomed in Brest-Litovsk.|
Gen. Dukhonin is murdered by a mob of red guards at Mohilev
station. General Kornilov manages to escape the mob.
Russian army begins to fall apart as soldiers begin to desert and head for home.
|5 December||Preliminary suspension of hostilities on Eastern Front are declared.|
|6 December||Romania is obliged to suspend hostilities due to Russian actions.|
|10 December||Bolsheviks defeat General Kornilov north of Kharkov at Tamarovka.|
|11 December||Forces from Russian front sent against the Don Cossacks.|
Don Cossacks fight Bolsheviks at Rostov.
Romanians sign armistice.
Kornilov's troops fight Bolsheviks near Bielgorod.
Constituent Assembly at Taurida Palace is dispersed by Bolshevik troops.
|14 December||Rostov is occupied by the Bolsheviks.|
Russians sign 28 day Armistace
After six days of fighting General Kaledin of the Don Cossacks enters Rostov. Bolsheviks flee to Black Sea Fleet.
Bolsheviks issue ultimatum to Ukraine demanding free passage for their troops.
|18 December||Russian Civil War expands to include Ukraine as Rada rejects Bolshevik ultimatum.|
|19 December||Odessa declares support for the Bolsheviks.|
|22 December||Peace negotiations continue at Brest-Litovsk.|
German forces not sent to France or Italy are being massed on south and
Telegraph between Petrograd and southwest Russia is disrupted by Ukrainian authorities.
|25 December||Count Czernin replies to Russian peace proposals. He accepted many of their terms and suggested that other terms be modified. He only rejected the article that Germany give up her colonies.|
|27 December||Bolsheviks attempt to get Ukraine to fight the Cossacks.|
Civil War rages across Russia.
Large number of officers join Gen. Kaleden.